Fissured tongue is a common, benign clinical condition of unknown etiology that affects more than 2-30% the population. Heredity appears to be a factor, with some evidence suggesting that the condition represents a polygenic trait, or an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance or expressivity.
Fissured tongue is often found in association with geographic tongue, suggesting that the same gene or genes may be associated with both conditions. Fissured tongue may be a component of the Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome. It is a common finding in Down syndrome and is occasionally seen in association with Cowden syndrome, pachyonychia congenita, and acromegaly (in the setting of macroglossia). There is an occasional association with psoriasis and reports of improvement during infliximab treatment for psoriasis.
- N Yarom, U Cantony, M Gorsky: Prevalence of fissured tongue, geographic tongue and median rhomboid glossitis among Israeli adults of different ethnic origins. Dermatology. 209:88-94 2004
- Kullaa‐Mikkonen A, Sorvari T, Kotilainen R, et al. Morphological variations on the dorsal surface of the human tongue. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1985;81:104–10.
- Kalifatidis A, Albanidou‐Farmaki E, Daniilidis M, Markopoulos AK, Karyotis N, Antoniades DZ. HLA alleles and fissured tongue. Int J Immunogenet 2010 Dec;37(6):509–11.
- D’Erme AM, Agnoletti AF, Prignano F. Fissured tongue responding to biologics during the treatment of psoriasis: the importance of detecting oral involvement of psoriasis. Dermatol Ther 2013 Jul–Aug;26(4):364–6.