What is Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-4 Receptor (IL-4R)
IL-4 is produced by T cells. The T cells are kinds of immune system white blood cells, they locate and ‘eat’ harmful particles such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
IL-4R, also knowas Interleukin-4 Receptor alpha (IL-4Rα), is a gene and transmits IL4 signals across the cell membrane. [1,2]
Elevated IL-4R is associated with atopy, a condition that can manifest itself as allergic rhinitis, sinusitus, asthma, or eczema. [1,2]
IL-13 is produced by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, CD4 cells, Natural killer T cell, Mast cell, Basophil cells, Eosinophilcells and Nuocyte cells which are kinds of immune system white blood cells, they locate and ‘eat’ harmful particles such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites .
Dupilumab (Dupixent ® ) is a FDA apporved monoclonal antibody that inhibits interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 signaling by specifically binding to the IL-4R-alpha subunit shared by the IL-4 and IL-13 receptor complexes [4,5].
- INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, ALPHA; IL4RA. GENE 147781 https://omim.org/entry/147781
- IL4R interleukin 4 receptor [ Homo sapiens (human) ] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/3566
- Rael EL, Lockey RF. Interleukin-13 signaling and its role in asthma. World Allergy Organ J. 2011;4(3):54–64. doi:10.1097/WOX.0b013e31821188e0
- Jean L. Bolognia , Julie V. Schaffer , Lorenzo Cerroni, edit. Dermatology, Fourth edition, China: Elsevier, 2018, ISBN 978–0‐7020–6275–9. page2254
- Albader SS, Alharbi AA, Alenezi RF, Alsaif FM. Dupilumab side effect in a patient with atopic dermatitis: a case report study. Biologics. 2019;13:79–82. Published 2019 May 13. doi:10.2147/BTT.S195512